英语介词是什么意思

英语介词表示词与词、词与句关系的词。常用介词:on、at、in、above、by、with等;合成类介词:inside、outside、onto、out of、within 等。

常用介词:on、at、in、above、by、with等;

合成类介词:inside、outside、onto、out of、within 等;

短语类介词:according to、ahead of、along with等。

一、含义

介词是一种用来表示词与词, 词与句之间的关系的词。在句中不能单独作句字成分。介词后面一般有名词代词或相当于名词的其他词类,短语或从句作它的宾语。介词和它的宾语构成介词词组,在句中作状语,表语,补语或介词宾语。

二、分类

1.常用简单介词:

  about, across, against, among, after, at, behind, besides, beyond, by, concerning, beneath, between, despite, except, during, down, for, from, past, than, under, until 等。

2.合成介词:

  inside, outside, onto, out of, within 等。

3.短语介词:

  according to, ahead of, along with, as for, because of, be means of, due to, in spite of, on behalf of, owing to, with regard to 等。

三、介词与“……的”之关系

在英语学习中,一遇到“……的”,大家就会立刻想到’s 所有格或者of。实际上,在很多情况下,“……的”必须借助于介词才能准确表达。

  ● 美国的冬天→ the winter in America

  ● 停车场的入口→ the entrance to the parking lot

  ● 穿过森林的小路→ the path through the forest

  ● 鲁迅的著作→ the works by Lu Xun

  ● 水中的月亮→ the moon reflected in water

  ● 历史的见证→ the witness to history

  ● 对爱的渴望→ a longing for love

  ● 对我们不利的证据→ the evidence against us

  ● 阳光下的漫步→ a walk in the sunlight

  ● 追求名誉的女人→ a lady after fame

  ● 两人之间的争论→ an argument between the two persons

四、重要介词的重要用法

  (1)from:此介词表示“to”相反的方向。

  He came from London.

  He went to London.

  二词常搭配使用“from... to...”

  We studied English from morning to afternoon.

  He'll start from Beijing to Shanghai.

  经典用法:

  ● 由于→ The girl is trembling from fear.

  ● 免除→ Tramps are always free from care. 流浪汉们总是无忧无虑。

  ● 分开→ The couple parted from each other at the airport.

  ● 由……制成→ The red wine is made from grapes. 红葡萄酒是由葡萄制成的。

  由from引导的惯用法:

  from far 从远处

  from now / then on 从现在/那时起

  from bad to worse 每况愈下

  from time to time(occasionally 时而)

  习语:

  She comes to visit me from time to time.

  (2)out of:表示与"into"相反的语意。

  He will be out of town.

  I stepped out of the dark room.

  out of+ 名词 (= lack, to be without 用完,用光)

  He went to the shop because he was out of paper.

  out of date (= old-fashioned 过时的)

  The book has been out of date.

  out of work (= jobless 失业的)

  He needs money because be is out of work.

  out of the question (= impossible 不可能的)

  Finishing the hard work is out of the question.

  out of question (= doubtless 毫无疑问的)

  That he can do it well is out of question.

  out of order(= not functioning 失灵的)

  Her radio is out of order, so she can't listen to it.

  (3)by:表示从旁经过或在……附近。

  He passed by me without saying hello.

  He lives by the sea.

  经典用法:

  ● 通过→This is the nearest road by which they came.

  ● 在……时候→The young man works by day and steals money by night.

  ● 由……所生→He has two sons by her second wife.

  ● 抓住→She caught her child by his coat in the flood.

  ● 按……计算→The farmers sell their apples by the pound.

  ● 就(气质,特征)而言→He is an artist by temperament(气质).

  用于被动语意,导出动作执行者:

  The glass was broken by the boy.

  by + 具体时间:

  They usually have dinner by 8 o'clock.

  by + 交通工具 (bus, train, plan...):

  He travelled to Paris by air/plane.

  by the end of + 时间名词:到……末为止

  By the end of last year, they had learnt 100 texts.

  By the end of this term, they will have learnt 100 texts.

  by then:到那时

  He will graduate in 1999, by then he will leave Beijing.

  by way of (= via):经由,取道

  They are going to the United States by way of Hong Kong.

  by the way:顺便问

  By the way, do you know where Mr. Li has gone?

  by far:……得多(用于修饰比较级和*高级)

  The book is by far the best on the subject.

  by accident:不小心,与on purpose(故意地)语意相反

  The wrong information was put into the computer by accident.
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