语法精讲及练习 | 形容词和副词的比较级与最高级

1

概念引入

1.比较级及最高级名言

Blood is thicker than water. 血浓于水。

Learning makes the wise wiser and the fool more foolish.

学问使聪明人更聪明,使愚人更愚。

A good fame is better than a good face.

美名胜过美貌。

Don’t try to look bigger and better than you really are.

不要装得比自己真实形象更高大,更完美。

The deepest feeling always shows itself in silence.

最深沉的爱往往表现为沉默。

The greatest talker are the least doers.

理论的巨人,行动的矮子。

Science is the most important and the most beautiful thing that man ever requires.

科学是人类所需要的最重要和最美好的东西。

He that runs fastest gets the ring.

捷足先登。

2.形容词及副词比较级及最高级的定义

大多数的形容词和副词都有三个级别:原级、比较级、最高级。其中比较级表示“更……”,用于两者之间的比较,用来说明“前者比后者更……”,比较级前面一般用much, even, a little修饰,其中even, much 只能修饰比较级。当三个或三个以上的人或事物进行比较时,需要用到形容词(副词)的最高级。表达“……是最……的”,用“the+形容词(副词)的最高级”的结构。后面可以加上表示范围的介词短语或从句。例如:

He is much taller than I. 他比我要高得多。

I jump a little higher than he. 我跳得比他高一点点。

London is the biggest city in Britain. 伦敦是英国最大的城市。

She sings the best in Class Two. 二班她唱歌最好。

2

用法讲解

1. 形容词和副词比较级、最高级的变化规则

(1)规则变化的形容词及副词的比较级和最高级

一般在词尾直接加er或est。

例如:tall-taller-tallest,long-longer-longest

以不发音的字母e结尾的单词在词尾直接加r或st。

例如:nice-nicer-nicest

以辅音字母+y结尾的词,把y变为i,再加er或est。

例如:heavy-heavier-heaviest

重读闭音节,末尾只有一个辅音字母,双写这个辅音字母,再加er或est。

例如:big-bigger-biggest

部分双音节词和多音节词分别在原级前加more构成比较级和most构成最高级。

例如:slowly-more slowly-most slowly;beautiful-more beautiful-most beautiful

(2)不规则变化的形容词及副词的比较级和最高级


2. 比较级和最高级句型:

(1)形容词及副词比较级的句型:

1)比较级+than...:……比……较为……。即:“A +动词+形容词或副词比较级+than+B”。两者相比较,A比B更……一些。例如:

His brother is younger than I(me). 他弟弟比我年轻。

Beijing is more beautiful than Wuhan. 北京比武汉更漂亮。

【注意】

在比较级前有时可加一些修饰语,如much, a lot, a little, still, even等以示强调或加强语气。例如:

This box is a little heavier than yours. 

这个箱子比你的要稍重一些。

This movie is much more interesting than that one. 

这部影片比那部有趣得多。

2) as... as:……和……相同。即:A+动词+as+形容词或副词原级+as+B,表示A和B两者比较,程度相同,“……和……相同”。例如:

My uncle is as tall as your father. 我叔叔和你父亲一样高。

My dog is as old as that one. 我的狗与那个狗一样大。

3) A+not+as+形容词或副词原级+as+B 表示A,B两者程度不同,即“A不如B那么……”。例如:

My uncle is not as tall as your father. 我叔叔不如你父亲高。

Tom is not as honest as John. 汤姆不如约翰诚实。

He can’t run as /so fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

4)“比较级+ and+比较级”或“more and more + 原级(多音节词和部分双音节词)”意为“越来越……”。例如:

Our city is more and more beautiful. 我们的城市越来越美丽了。

More and more countries begin to save the financial crisis.

越来越多的国家开始拯救金融危机。

5)“the + 比较级,the + 比较级”意为“越……就越……”。例如:

The more you read, the more you know.

你书读得越多,你知道得就越多。

(2)形容词及副词最较级的句型:

1)…one of the +最高级+名词复数,意为“……之一”。例如:

Lu Xun is one of the greatest writers last century.

鲁迅是上世纪最伟大的作家之一。

2)…最高级+of (in/among)…,意为“……之中,最……”。例如:

Of all the movie stars, I think Zhang Ziyi is the best.

在所有的电影明星之中,我认为章子怡是最好的。

3) This is / was + 最高级+名词+that定语从句,意为“这是最……”。例如:

This is the worst film that I have seen these years.

这是我这些年来看过的最不好的一部电影。

3. 形容词和副词的比较级和最高级需要注意点:

(1)当比较级后面有of the two…之类的词语时,比较级前要加定冠词the。例如:

Lucy is the taller of the twins.

Lucy是双胞胎中比较高的那个。

(2)如果后面接名词时,much more + 不可数名词,many more + 可数名词复数。例如:

The farmers have produced much more rice.

这些农夫收了更多的稻谷。

(3)old的比较级形式有older和elder。elder只用于兄弟姐妹的长幼关系。例如:

My elder brother is a famous artist. 我哥哥是一名有名的艺术家。

(4)far的比较级形式有farther和further。一般farther表示距离,而further表示更进一步。例如:

I have nothing further to say. 我没有什么要说的了。

(5) 形容词最高级前必须加定冠词the,但如果最高级前有物主代词、指示代词、名词所有格等修饰时,则不用定冠词。例如:

My oldest daughter is 16 years old. 我最大的女儿16岁。

(6) 形容词最高级常与由介词in或of引导的表示范围的短语连用。若介词后的名词或代词与句中的主语是同一事物时,则用of短语;当只说明是在某一空间、时间范围内的比较时,则用in短语。例如:

This apple is the biggest of all. 在所有的苹果中,这个苹果最大。

He is the youngest in his class. 他在他班里年龄最小。

(7) 形容词最高级前可用序数词限定,共同修饰后面的名词,其结构为:the+序数词+形容词最高级+名词。例如:

Hainan is the second largest island inChina. 海南是中国的第二大岛。

(8) 形容词最高级的意义还可以用比较级形式表达。常见的有:

1)形容词比较级+than any other+单数名词。例如:

This book is more difficult than any other book here.

= This book is the most difficult book of all.

这些书当中这本最难。

2) 形容词比较级+than the other+复数名词。例如:

Asia is bigger than the other continents on the earth.

亚洲是地球上最大的洲。

(9) 形容词最高级前若有不定冠词a,这时,它不表示比较,而表示“非常”的意思。例如:

Spring is a best season. 春天是一个非常好的季节。

3

巩固练习

I. 写出下列形容词与副词的比较级及最高级形式。

1. long _________ _________

2. wide _________ _________

3. fat _________ _________

4. heavy_________ _________

5. far _________ _________

6. interesting _________ _________

7. wet_________ _________

8. hot _________ _________

9. nice _________ _________

10. much _________ _________

II. 用所给词的正确形式填空。

1. Of the two girls, I find Lucy the _______ (clever) one.

2. Gold(黄金) is ______ (little) useful than iron(铁).

3. My sister is two years _______ (old) than I.

4. The boy is not so ______ (interesting) as his brother.

5. Dick sings _____ (well), she sings ______(well) than John.

6. She will be much ______ (happy) in her new house.

7. She is _________(calm) than her friend.

8. Lucy is the _________(outgoing) of the two girls.

9. This room is not as _________(big) as that one.

10. He lives _________(far) away from the school than I do.

11. Tom is _____________ (tall) of the three.

12. Li Lei is _____________ (young) boy in his class.

13. I think English is _____________ (interesting) of all the subjects .

14. David has_____________ (many) story books of all the students.

15. Li Lei speaks English _____________ (well) in his group.

16. Lucy runs _____________(slow) in her class.

17. This is _______________(difficult) book in my bag.

18. Which is ____________(far) of the three places?

19. The Changjiang River is one of _________(long) rivers in the world.

20. Which city is ___________ (beautiful), Xi’an, Beijing or Nanjing?

III. 句型转换,每空一词。

1. Basketball is more popular than football in theUSA. (改为同义句)

Football is _________ _________ popular as basketball in theUSA.

2. Tom is tall. Jim is short.(合并为一句)

Tom is _________ _________ Jim.

3. Mike is not as quiet as his brother.(改为同义句)

Mike’s brother is _________ _________ Mike.

4. I’m athletic. He’s athletic, too. (合并为一句)

I am _________ _________ _________ he is.

5. My dictionary isn’t so thick as yours.

My dictionary is _________ than yours.

IV. 完成句子,每空一词。

1. 我的哥哥比你高。

My brother is _________ _________ you.

2. 他不如他的弟弟外向。

He isn’t _________ _________ _________ his brother.

3. 我想我比杰克高一点。

I think I am _________ _________ _________ than Jack.

4. 春天来了,天气越来越暖和了。

Spring is coming, it gets _________ _________ _________.

5. 你学习越努力,成绩就会越好。

_________ _________ you study, _________ _________ grades you will get.

6. 那个短发的女孩是我们班最高的。

The girl with short hair is __________ __________ in our class.

7. 今天是一年中最热的一天。

Today is __________ __________ day of the year.

8.中国第二大城市是哪座城市?

Which is __________ __________ __________ __________ inChina?

9. 他的房间是三个中最干净的一个。

His room is __________ __________ of the three.

10. 长江是世界上最长的河流之一。

The Yangtze River is __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ in the world.

V. 单项选择。

1. Water pollution is one of ___________ in our country.

A. serious problem

B. the more serious problems

C. most serious problems

D. the most serious problems

2. Of all the students in our class, Jack is ___________.

A. taller B. tallest C. the tallest D. very tall

3. This is ___________ book in our library.

A. the most interesting

B. most interesting

C. the more interesting

D. more interesting

4. I think the song in the film “Titanic” is ___________ one of all the movie songs.

A. the most beautiful

B. most beautiful

C. a beautiful

D. much more beautiful

5. Mr. Smith thought the Century Park was the second ___________ in Shanghai.

A. large B. larger

C. largest D. very large

【真题链接】

1. We are happy to see our city is developing ________ these years than before.

A. quickly B. the most quickly

C. very quickly D. more quickly

2. Air pollution has become__________ than ever before. We must do something to stop it.

A. serious B. more serious

C. most serious D. the most serious

3. Mo Yan is one of _____ writers in the world.

A. famous B. more famous

C. most famous D. the most famous

参考答案

I. 写出下列形容词与副词的比较级及最高级形式。

1. longer,longest 2. wider,widest

3. fatter,fattest 4. heavier,heaviest

5. farther/further, farthest furthest

6. more interesting,most interesting

7. wetter,wettest 8. hotter, hottest

9.nicer, nicest 10. more, most

II. 用所给词的正确形式填空。

1. cleverer 2. less 3. older

4. interesting 5. well; better

6. happier 7. calmer

8. more outgoing 9. big

10. farther 11. the tallest

12. the youngest 13. the most interesting

14. the most 15. (the)best

16. (the) slowest 17. the most difficult

18. the farthest 19. the longest

20. the most beautiful

III. 句型转换,每空一词。

1. not as 2. taller than 3. quieter than

4. as athletic as 5. thinner

IV. 完成句子,每空一词。

1. taller than 2. as/so outgoing as

3. a little taller 4. warmer and warmer

5. The harder; the better 6. the tallest

7. the hottest 8. the second largest city

9. the cleanest 10. one of the longest rivers

V.单项选择。

1. D。“…one of the +最高级+名词复数”表示“……之一”。

2. C。由前文的 of all the students可知应该用最高级。

3. A。根据in our library可知应该用最高级,且形容词最高级前加the。

4. A。根据of all the movie songs可知用最高级,beautiful的最高级是the most beautiful。

5. C。形容词最高级前可用序数词限定,共同修饰后面的名词,其结构为:the+序数词+形容词最高级+名词。

[真题链接]

1. D。本句意为:我们很高兴看到我们的城市这些年来比以前发展更快。我们可以看到 than before,所以这里用比较级形式。所以答案选D。

2. B。句意:空气污染比以前更严重了。我们必须想办法来阻止它。本题考查形容词比较级。由设空处后的than可知应用比较级,serious的比较级为more serious,故答案为B项。

3. D。此题考察形容词最高级最常考的一个句型“one of the +形容词最高级+可数名词复数”表示“最.……之一” 。

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