解释说明文着重说明事物的本质、特征和功用等。许多科普文章都属于这一类。在阅读这类文章时要学会解决what, how, why 等一类的问题。它们是文章的关键。如能带着这些问题阅读，将会更迅速抓住文章的主题。
①Which of the following is true/NOT true in the passage?
②Which of the following statements is NOT discussed/mentioned in the passage?
③Which is the right order of the events given in the passage?
④All the following statements are NOT true except .
做此类型的题目还要特别注意句子的逻辑关系。英语中有许多功能词，如：表因果关系的because, since, as等；表转折关系的but, however ,on the contrary, on the other hand等等。
在be，be called，call等判断词出现的判断句中，或定语从句及标点符号，可以根据已知部分，猜测生词的含义。例如：The herdsman, who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a year.通过理解定语从句的意思，能猜出herdsman是“牧人”。
在but，however，yet，otherwise，though这些表示意义转折的连词出现的句子中，其前后的词有明显对比关系，根据已知的内容，通过这种对比关系，就很容易猜出生词的词义了。例如：Though Tom’s face has been washed quite clean, his neck still remains grubby. 和clean意思相对的便是“肮脏的”了，因此可猜出句中grubby的意思是“肮脏的”。
because, since与as是连接原因状语从句的从属连词，so是连接表示结果的状语从句的连词，so...that与such...that中的that是连接结果状语从句的。当这些信息词出现在有生词的句子中，通过因果关系，依据已知部分就能猜出生词的词义。例如：She wanted the hairdresser to trim her hair a bit because it was too long. 根据because从句所讲的意思，我们就可推测trim就是“修剪”之意。
运用逻辑推理能力，自身的生活经验及生活常识。再联系上下文能读懂的部分，可以正确猜出词义。例如：Most of the roses are beginning to wither because of the cold. 根据句子意思及生活经验，wither表示“枯萎”。
同等关系，指的是一个词，一组词或短语在句中作同一成分，而且它们的词义都属于同一范畴。明显的标志是，这样的词组或短语中间常常用并列连词and或or来连接。例如：At forty-two he was in his prime and always full of energy. 从“年龄42岁”以及与prime具有同等关系的full of energy可以猜出prime的意思是“盛年时期”。
You can take any of the periodicals: “The World of English”. “Foreign Language Teaching in Schools”, or “English Learning”. 从后面列举的例子中，可以猜出periodical是“期刊，杂志”的意思。
The schools are reluctant to take off — even teachers with tickets for the England-Argentina game had trouble getting the day off.
A.kind B.unwilling C. free D.careless 【解题思路】通过破折号可知正确答案为B.
①What can you conclude/ imply from this passage?
②What’s the author’s attitude（态度）towards...?
③We can infer /learn from the passage that...
如：Once there was something wrong with a machine in a factory. The workers could do nothing but turn to a German engineer for help, who drew a line on it and said, “Take off the part where the line is and change it for a new one. ”The machine, with a new line on, began running well again. The engineer then asked for $ 30,000 for what he had done. The following were what he wrote on a bill, “The new part only costs one dollar, and knowing where the problem with the machine is costs $ 29,999.”
Q: What can you conclude from this passage?
A. the engineer asked for too much money
B. the workers should pay the money
C. the knowledge is worth money
D. the new part could cost more
要确定文章标题，首先，要在阅读原文的基础上，考虑标题是否与主题密切相关；其次，看标题是否能概括全文内容。不能只概括短文中的某些事实或细节；然后，要注意标题范围不应太大或太小；最后，标题应简练并能吸引读者。即：1、独特新颖 2、概括性强 3、短小精炼。
①The best title/ headline for this passage might be________.
②The text (passage) could be entitled ______.
③What is the best title for the passage?
④What’s the topic of the article?
如：In the 1930s, a lot of people in the USA were out of work. Among these people was a man named Alfred Butts. He always had an interest in word games and to fill his time he planned a game which he called “Lexico”.
However, he was not completely satisfied with the game, so he made a number of changes to it and changed its name from “ Lexico” to “Alph” and then to “Criss Cross”. He wanted to make some money from his new game but he didn’t have any real commercial(商业性的)success.
Q: The text is mainly about________.
A. Lexico B. Three men C . A word game D. Alfred Butts.
（2）主题句（topic sentence）及主旨大意(main idea)的概括
①What is the topic sentence of the passage?
②This article/text/passage mainly tells that _____________.
③Which of the following gives a general idea of the passage?
④Which of the following is the main idea of the passage?
如：Joshua Bingham studied 4 years at the University of Paris and decided to leave his graduation. He transferred to the University of Berlin and graduated with honors. Harvard Law School and, later, Boston College provided him with an excellent legal background. He is presently a corporation lawyer in Miami, Florida.
Q: What is the main idea of the passage?
A. How Joshua Bingham became a lawyer.
B. Bingham is a diligent student.
C. Joshua Bingham received an excellent education.
D. A good lawyer needs good education.
【解题思路】 此文没有主题句。全篇共四句，只陈述了四个细节(detail)性的事实。因此就答案本身看，个个都对。读者只能将所有的details综合起来，进行逻辑推理，才能构成一个没有言明的主题思想(unstated main idea)。由于文中主要涉及了Joshua Bingham接受教育的情况，即作者想告诉我们的是：Joshua Bingham接受过良好的教育，所以答案是 Ｃ。
Mr. Lang worked in a factory. As a driver, he was busy but he was paid much. His wife was an able woman and did all the housework. When he came back, she took good care of him and he never did anything at home. So he had enough time when he had a holiday. A few friends of his liked gambling(赌博) and he learned it soon. So he was interested in it and hardly forgot anything except gambling. He lost all his money and later he began to sell the television, watches and so on. His wife told him not to do it but he didn’t listen to her. She had to tell the police. He and his friends were punished for it. And he was hardly sent away. After he came out of lockup(拘留所), he hated her very much and the woman had to leave him.
It was New Year’s Day. Mr. Lang didn’t go to work. He felt lonely and wanted to gamble again. He called his friends and they came soon. But they were afraid the police would come. He told his five-year-old son to go to find out if there were the policemen outside. They waited for a long time and didn’t think the police would come and began to gamble. Suddenly opened the door and in came a few policemen.
“I saw there weren’t any policemen outside, daddy,” said the boy, “so I went to the crossing and asked some to come.”
1. Mr. Lang was paid much because _______.
A. he was a driver
B. he worked in a factoryC. he had a lot of work to do
D. he had worked there for a long time
2. Mrs. Lang did all housework because _______.
A. she couldn’t find any work
B. she thought her husband was tiredC. her husband spent all time in gambling
D. she wouldn’t stop her husband gambling
3. _______, so he was put into lockup.
A. Mr. Lang often gambled
B. Mr. Lang was late for workC. Mr. Lang didn’t help his wife at home
D. Mr. Lang wasn’t polite to the police
4. The woman had to leave Mr. Lang because _______.
A. he didn’t love her any longer
B. he wouldn’t stop gamblingC. he had been put into lockup
D. he was hardly sent away by the factory
5. Which of the following is right?
A. The boy hoped his father to be put into lockup again.B. The boy thought his father needed some policemen.C. The boy hoped his father to stop gambling soon.D. The boy hoped his mother to come back.
1. C。细节题。根据第1段第2句话 As a driver, he was busy but he was paid much 可知答案为 C。
2. B。推断题。根据第1段第3句话 His wife was an able woman and did all the housework. When he came back, she took good care of him and he never did anything at home 可知答案为 B。
3. A。推断题。根据 His wife told him not to do it but he didn’t listen to her. She had to tell the police 可知答案为 A。
4. A。细节题。根据 …he hated her very much and the woman had to leave him可知答案为 A。
5. B。语义理解题。根据最后一句话 I saw there weren’t any policeman outside, daddy, so I went to the crossing and asked some to come 可知答案为 B。
Students in many countries are learning English. Some of these students are small children. Others are teen-agers. Many are adults. Some learn at school, others by themselves. A few learn English by learning the language over the radio, on TV, or in film. One must work hard to learn another language.
Why do all these people want to learn English? It is difficult to answer this question. Many boys and girls learn English at school because it is one of their subjects required for study. They study their own language and maths and English: Some people learn it because it is useful for their work. Many people learn English for their work. Many people learn English for their higher studies, because at college or university some of their books are in English. Other people learn English because they want to read newspapers or magazines in English.
1. People learn English _______.
A. at school
B. over the radio
C. on TV
D. not all in the same way
2. Different kinds of people want to learn English _______.
A. together with other subjects
B. for different reas**C. for their work
D. for higher studies at colleges
3. From this passage we know that _______.
A. we can learn English easily
B. English is very difficult to learnC. English is learned by most people in the worldD. English is a useful language but one must work hard to learn
4. Which of the following is right?
A. We don’t need to learn any foreign languages.B. We can do well in all our work without English.C. English is the most important subject in schools.D. We should learn English because we need to face the world.
1. D。由第1段我们可以知道学习英语的形式可以over the radio, on TV, or in film等不同的方式。
2. B。根据第2段人们学习英语的原因有required for study, useful for their work, for high studies 等几种。由此可推知人们学习英语的原因是不同的。
3. D。由于人们学习英语的各种原因可以发现英语是非常有用的。但从small children到adults(成年人)都用各种形式去学，说明英语必须靠人的努力才能学好。
4. D。由于文章中说很多国家都学习英语，那么如果不学习英语就不能融入现代社会。所以学习英语的目的是we need to face the world(我们需要面对这个世界)。
2020高考英语作文预测: 传统文化 (附历年相关真题及预测)